Advocacy Documents

Statement on the Universal Periodic Review of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Document type:
Date/Month:
11 October 2019
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Statement on the Universal Periodic Review of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Almost 25 years after the signing of the Dayton Peace Agreement, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) is a country that is still struggling to deal with the aftermaths of war. The country struggles with repetitive political crisis which severely affects the government’s ability to live up to its human rights obligations.

This statement addresses the following issues:

    1. The impact of economic reforms on gender equality and economic, social and cultural rights
    2. Shrinking space for activism
    3. Rights of migrants and asylum-seekers.

 

        1. The impact of economic reforms on gender equality and economic, social and cultural rights

During the previous UPR cycle, BiH accepted several recommendations pertaining to gender equality and increased efforts to achieve development and combat poverty.

But since the previous UPR cycle the government of BiH has also pushed forth economic reforms, with support from the European Union and international financial institutions, conditioning economic growth with structural reforms and fiscal consolidation, ultimately leading to cuts in public spending. For example, the IMF’s loan to BiH is conditioned to the progress of the structural reforms, while no poverty-mitigation programmes have been introduced.

The reforms also envision most investments to be made in large-scale infrastructure projects, which will therefore mostly benefit job creation in heavily male dominated sectors such as construction. Sectors where women are overrepresented in the workforce, such as hospitals and schools, or investments into social infrastructure that support women’s participation in society, such as child and elderly care are not prioritised and are likely to suffer from cuts in public spending.

The ability to participate in political and public life is intimately linked with the enjoyment of economic and social rights. The failure to invest sufficient resources and funds into economic and social rights in BiH has been perhaps the most serious and persistent obstacle to women’s participation.

Since its last UPR, protests from workers, unions, teachers, healthcare workers and civil society in have increased. Protests have increased due to low salaries, unpaid benefits, or generally poor human rights situation in the country.

Despite the foreseeable impacts of the reforms on inequalities (including on gender inequalities), the reforms were not planned with a human rights-based approach or with an inclusive and transparent way. Civil society at large, including women’s human rights groups, remains excluded throughout the planning and implementation phase of the reforms.

RECOMMENDATIONS:

        1. Create mechanisms that ensure systematic, meaningful and effective consultations with broad spectrum of civil society, in particular with women’s groups, in the planning, implementation and evaluation of economic reforms.
        2. Introduce mandatory ex-ante and ex-postgender and human rights impact assessments into the process of planning and undertaking reforms and investments in various sectors in society and use findings to take corrective actions where negative impacts are found, such as direct or indirect discrimination or increase in poverty levels.
        3. Conduct gender analysis of all conditionalities linked to lending agreements with International Financial Institutions or other lending institutions, and where negative effects are detected, invest in effective mitigating programs.
        4. Put an end to austerity measures and assess the impacts of those implemented thus far, in particular in relation to access to economic and social rights, introducing strategies to rectify the identified negative effects on the population, in particular women and other marginalised categories in the society.
        5. Invest in broadening and improving the full spectre of affordable public services specifically aiming at supporting women’s engagement in the formal economy and relieving them from the burden of unpaid care work.

 

        1. Shrinking space for activism and increase in repressive measures

During its last UPR BiH supported several recommendations pertaining to the strengthening of its human rights mechanisms, as well as regarding freedom of expression and assembly. However, since 2014, repressive measures have been used on several occasions to restrict the activities of human rights defenders and of civil society. In our submission we have dealt in detail with events related to two cases – Justice for Davidaand Women of Kruščica, but I will focus on repressive measures used by the police in relation to the Women of Kruščica, which is about one communities struggle to defend their access and right to water and to adequate standard of leaving.

While there are no recommendation from the previous cycle that directly address the right to water there are several recommendations pertaining to adoption of a comprehensive approach to promotion and protection of human rights, the need to conduct broad consultations with civil society, strengthening the rule of law, the conduct of police officers, gender equality and so forth.

All of these recommendations are highly relevant for the ability of the communities in BiH to defend the pristine rivers that find themselves under heavy pressure from construction. To give you a general background BiH plans to build 300 new mini hydropower dams around the country, on nearly all of the country’s 244 rivers. This puts pristine rivers and communities’ right to water and to a clean environment at risk. Activists also have major concerns regarding the issuance of construction permits without rigorous and transparent social, environmental and human rights impact assessments. The population affected by these plans has been systematically excluded from decision-making processes despite existing legislation that guarantees their right to participate in decision-making.

Women of Kruščica, a small village in central Bosnia, challenged construction permits to build hydropower dams that would have damaged waterways in their community. They went to Court to claim remedy for violations of their right to meaningful consultations before issuing permits and to participate in public affairs related to water, and they won.

Although their campaign was eventually successful it came with a very high personal cost for the women. Women were subjected to police violence, violations of their right to peaceful assembly including excessive use of force by the police, intimidation from police officers, including through threats of high fines to pressure women from marginalized and poor socio-economic backgrounds.

The right to water is closely connected to gender equality and achievement of SDGs. In 80% of households with water shortages, women and girls are responsible for water collection.

RECOMMENDATIONS:

        1. Adopt effective measures to realise, without discrimination, the right to water and to ensure environmental sustainability and democratic and transparent management of natural resources, treating them as a social and cultural good, and not primarily as a commodity.
        2. Review and where necessary revise the allocation of permits pertaining to the construction of hydropower plants so as to ensure compliance with international human rights law, including the International Covenant on Economic and Social Rights and the CESCR’s General Comment No.15 on the right to water, in particular with regard to the obligation of the State to respect, protect and fulfil the right to water.
        3. Take measures to ensure that private enterprises, including when contracted by the State, operate under adequate regulatory frameworks, that safeguard environmental sustainability, and comply with human rights standards, including by giving priority in the allocation of water to the right to water for personal and domestic use.
        4. Introduce measures to prevent abuses of BiH regulatory framework pertaining to environmental protection and investment in natural resources, through inter aliaindependent monitoring; informed and meaningful participation of affected communities and imposition of penalties for non-compliance.
        5. When conducting human rights and environmental impact assessments, take into account the impacts of investments on gender-based discrimination, women’s health, gender-based and sexual violence, gendered division of labour on family and community levels, and women’s access to and control of social and economic resources.
        6. Guarantee affordable and accessible legal assistance to communities, with specific regard to the needs of women and marginalised groups, in lodging complaints about allegations of human rights violations resulting from business activities, including in the mining and hydropower sectors, and thoroughly investigate all such allegations and revoke licenses as appropriate.

 

        1. Rights of migrants and asylum-seekers

Since the end of 2017 BiH has seen a steady increase in the number of arrivals of asylum seekers and migrants. This is a newly emerged issue for the country, since the second UPR cycle. A sharp increase in migration flows through the country has revealed a substantive lack of capacity and interest from the relevant national institutions and international organizations to ensure a dignified protection of migrants and asylum-seekers. The government has failed to ensure accessible asylum procedures, and many asylum-seekers are left holding only attestations of the expressed intention to seek asylum. Without proper documentation they have no access to economic, social and cultural rights.

Places in formal accommodation camps are very limited. Most asylum seekers and migrants live in live in inhumane and degrading conditions such as factory halls, on the streets, in makeshift camps, squats and private accommodations. Often without access to sufficient food; healthcare, clothing and so forth. Vulnerable groups such as children or pregnant women or people with chronic diseases are not provided with specialised health care. This precarious situation puts women and girls at risk of violence and gender-based violence.

Recently, the authorities of Una Sana Canton started relocating migrants and asylum-seekers to a location which both the UN and the EU Commission have referred to as entirely inadequate as it is located in the vicinity of a landmine affected area and is a former landfill. The location poses serious health hazards and there are no sanitary facilities and no access to running water or electricity.

Detention of migrants and asylum-seekers by border police in cage-like holding cells have been documented at the southern part of border crossing into BiH, including of families with children.

Such inhumane reception conditions push migrants and asylum-seekers to leave the country as soon as possible, often by resorting to smugglers, which put them in harm’s way. Illegal crossings put them at risk of violence and of illegal pushbacks. Many are returned back to Bosnia with visible wounds on their bodies. Single women and women traveling with children, unaccompanied and separated children, face a high risk of becoming victims of trafficking or exploitation.

RECOMMENDATIONS:

        1. Uphold its obligations to protect and assist refugees, asylum seekers and migrants, including through taking effective control over the process of administration of camps.
        2. Ensure humane, dignified and lawful conditions of detention and accommodation of asylum-seekers and migrants, making sure that gender-sensitive measures and reception conditions respond to the specific needs of women and girls, and that appropriate procedures and oversight mechanisms are put in place to protect themfrom the risk of trafficking, abuse and other violations they can be exposed to, due to the precarious situation they find themselves in.
        3. Undertake systematic and continuous efforts to sensitise and build the capacities of public bodies, including the judiciary, police, border authorities, health and education personnel, civil servants, municipal and government officials, and others, to promote and protect the human rights of refugees, asylum seekers and migrants, and to address discriminatory attitudes and stereotypes.
        4. Take measures to assist in the durable social integration of refugees and asylum seekers in economic, social and cultural life, ensuring that they have access to education, health services and housing without discrimination.

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Coordonné par le Groupe de coordination du développement organisationnel, mais mis en œuvre par l'ensemble de WILPF!
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Have your voice heard! WILPF’s next International Programme is being developed through a process of co-creation – meaning our entire worldwide community is invited to participate in regional, national, and global discussions about what our strategic direction should look like. Get involved today to share your thoughts on WILPF’s work, vision, values, and actions.

Start by exploring this page, checking out the Participation Pack, or joining one of the many upcoming discussions. You can also write to your Regional Representative to learn more about how you can participate on a national and regional level.

Overseen by the International Board.
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Organise and attend Congress 2022

WILPF’s next International Congress will take place from 16-24 July 2022 (this is due to the uncertainties brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic). This track will open for registration and activity proposals in March 2022.

For more information, email congress2022@wilpf.org

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Each International Congress includes the election of WILPFers to join the International Board. The board is responsible for the overall leadership of WILPF, for setting the strategic and tactical objectives of the organisation as a whole, and for ensuring that WILPF stays true to its aims, values, and principles.

It is the role of the present International Board to establish a Nomination Committee, while the election process is coordinated by an Election Committee that will be constituted at the beginning of Congress.

The call for members to serve on the International Board is now out! National Sections have time until 19 March to submit nominations for the elected positions of President, two Vice-Presidents, and the Treasurer and to meet in their region to nominate one Regional Representative and one alternative Regional Representative. For more information, contact your Regional Representative or send an email to nomination@wilpf.org.
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To take action and make an impact in the world, we also need to look at how we function together. During the regular regional and Global Calls throughout 2021 and 2022, WILPFers are exploring gaps that need to be filled, policies we need to change, policies we need to make, work methods we need to finetune, and more. We seek solutions together, so we can fulfill our collective vision for a Future WILPF.

Coordinated by the International Board and Standing Committees, but implemented by all of WILPF!
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Question du moment : qu’est-ce que la paix féministe ?

Rejoins ou anime une discussion

À partir de juillet 2021, les membres de WILPF ont été invités à des appels mondiaux réguliers pour participer à des discussions visant à développer la vision, les valeurs et les actions pour l’avenir de WILPF. Tu souhaites animer une discussion ? Contacte membership@wilpf.org .

Porte-toi volontaire pour être traductrice ou interprète

Parle-toi plusieurs langues ? Si c’est le cas, nous avons besoin de toi ! Alors que nous nous dirigeons vers notre Congrès International, nous aurons besoin d’aide pour la traduction de documents internes et de petits morceaux de texte. Nous aurons également besoin d’aide pour l’interprétation lors des ateliers du Congrès et des sessions de connexion. Nous recherchons principalement des personnes capables de parler et d’écrire dans au moins deux des langues suivantes : anglais, français, espagnol, japonais et arabe. Si tu es intéressé(e) à fournir tes compétences, veuille contacter membership@wilpf.org .

Participer à l'élaboration du prochain Programme International

Fais entendre ta voix ! Le prochain Programme International de WILPF est développé à travers un processus de création collaboratif - ce qui signifie que toute notre communauté mondiale est invitée à participer à des discussions régionales, nationales et mondiales sur ce à quoi notre direction stratégique devrait ressembler. Implique-toi aujourd'hui pour partager tes réflexions sur le travail, la vision, les valeurs et les actions de WILPF.

Commence par explorer cette page, consulte le pack de participation ou rejoigne l'une des nombreuses discussions à venir. Vous pouvez également lui écrire à ta représentante régionale pour en savoir plus sur la façon dont tu peux participer au niveau national et régional.

Supervisé/géré par le Conseil International.
Démarré/
Ouvert

Organiser le Congrès et y participer

Le prochain Congrès International de WILPF aura lieu en ligne du 16 au 24 juillet 2022 (cela est dû aux incertitudes provoquées par la pandémie de COVID-19). Cette voie ouvrira aux inscriptions et aux propositions d'activités en mars 2022.

Pour plus d'informations, écris à congress2022@wilpf.org.

Coordonné par le Conseil International et le Comité Directeur du Congrès.
Bientôt

Désigner des représentantes de WILPF

Chaque Congrès International comprend l'élection du Conseil International. Le Conseil International est responsable de la direction générale de WILPF ; de la définition des objectifs stratégiques et tactiques de l'organisation dans son ensemble ; et de la garantie que WILPF reste fidèle à ses objectifs, ses valeurs et ses principes.

C'est le rôle du Conseil International actuel d'établir un Comité de Nomination, tandis que le processus d'élection est coordonné par un Comité d'Election qui sera constitué au début du Congrès.

L'appel aux membres pour siéger au Conseil international est démarré ! Les Sections Nationales ont jusqu'au 19 mars pour soumettre des candidatures aux postes élus de présidente, de deux vice-présidentes et de trésorière et pour se réunir dans leur région afin de nommer une représentante régionale et un représentante régionale suppléant.

Pour plus d'informations, contacte ta représentant régional ou envoie un e-mail à nomination@wilpf.org.
Démarré/
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Comparte tus ideas

Pregunta del momento: ¿que es la paz feminista?

Share your thoughts and ideas

Not able to join the calls? You can still share your thoughts and ideas ahead of the call, or view the notes and comment on them afterwards!

Share your thoughts and ideas in any of the following ways:

  • Online form (AR, EN, FR, SP)
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Únete a una discusión

Desde julio del 2021, los miembros de WILPF han sido invitados a llamadas globales periódicas para participar en debates destinados a desarrollar la visión, los valores y las acciones para el futuro de WILPF. ¿Quieres organizar una discusión? Ponte en contacto con membership@wilpf.org.

Contribuye como traductora o intérprete

¿Hablas varios idiomas? ¡Si es así, te necesitamos! A medida que avancemos hacia nuestro Congreso Internacional, necesitaremos ayuda con las traducciones de documentos internos y pequeños fragmentos de texto. También necesitaremos ayuda con la interpretación durante los talleres del Congreso y las sesiones de conexión. Buscamos principalmente personas capaces de hablar y escribir en dos o más de los siguientes idiomas: inglés, francés, español, japonés y árabe. Si estás interesado/a en brindar tus habilidades, comunícate con membership@wilpf.org .

Ayuda a crear el próximo Programa Internacional

Expresate! El próximo Programa Internacional de WILPF se está desarrollando a través de un proceso de colaborativo, lo que significa que toda nuestra comunidad mundial está invitada a participar en discusiones regionales, nacionales y globales sobre cómo debería ser nuestra dirección estratégica. Involúcrate hoy para compartir tus pensamientos sobre el trabajo, la visión, los valores y las acciones de WILPF. Comienza explorando esta página, consulta el paquete de participación o únete a una de las próximas discusiones. También puedes escribirle a tu representante regional para obtener más información sobre cómo puedes participar a nivel nacional y regional.


Supervisado por la Junta Internacional.
Comenzado

Organiza y asiste el Congreso de 2022

El próximo Congreso Internacional tendrá lugar en línea de 16 al 24 julio del 2022 (a causa de las incertidumbres producidas por la pandemia). Esta vía se abrirá para inscripciones y propuestas de actividades en marzo del 2022.

Envía un correo electrónico a congress2022@wilpf.org para obtener más información.

Coordinado por la Junta Internacional y el Comité Directivo del Congreso.
Dentro
de poco

Designar WILPFeras que
sirvan como representantes

Cada Congreso Internacional incluye la elección de los miembros de la Junta Internacional. La Junta Internacional es responsable del liderazgo general de WILPF, de establecer los objetivos estratégicos y tácticos de la organización en su conjunto y de garantizar que WILPF se mantenga fiel a sus objetivos, valores y principios.

Es función de la presente Junta Internacional establecer un Comité de Nominación, mientras que el proceso de elección es coordinado por un Comité de Elecciones que se constituirá al comienzo del Congreso.

¡Ya salió la convocatoria para que los miembros sirvan en la Junta Internacional! Las Secciones Nacionales tienen tiempo hasta el 19 de marzo para presentar nominaciones para los cargos electos de presidenta, dos vicepresidentas y tesorera y reunirse en su región para nominar una representante regional y una suplente. Para obtener más información, comunícate con tu representante regional o envía un correo electrónico a nomination@wilpf.org.
Comenzado

Desarrolla y fortalece las maneras de trabajar en conjunto en WILPF

Para que nuestras acciones tengan un impacto en el mundo, también debemos observar cómo funcionamos juntas. Durante las llamadas regulares regionales y globales a lo largo del 2021 y 2022, los WILPFers están explorando las brechas que deben llenarse, las políticas que debemos cambiar o implementar, los métodos de trabajo que debemos afinar y más. Buscamos soluciones juntas, para que podamos cumplir nuestra visión colectiva para el Futuro de WILPF.

Coordinado por la Junta Internacional y los Comités Permanentes, pero implementado por todo WILPF.
Comenzado

مشاركة الآراء

سؤال الساعة: ما هو السلام النسوي؟

الانضمام إلى/استضافة حوار أو نقاش

ابتداءً يوليو ٢٠٢١ ، تمت دعوة العضوات لإجراء مكالمات عالمية منتظمة للمشاركة في المناقشات التي تهدف إلى تطوير الرؤية والقيم والإجراءات لمستقبل WILPF.

في حال رغبة أي منكن في استضافة مناقشة،  الرجاء التواصل معنا من خلال: 

membership@wilpf.org

التطوع للترجمة اللغوية أو الفورية

إن كانت لديكن المهارات اللغويّة، فنحن بحاجة لكن! بينما نتقدّم في عملية تطوير البرنامج الدولي التالي، سنحتاج إلى المساعدة في ترجمة المستندات والنصوص الداخلية. سنحتاج أيضاً إلى المساعدة في الترجمة أثناء الجلسات الجانبية للمكالمات الإقليمية والعالمية. نحن نبحث بشكل أساسي عن أفراد قادرين على التحدث والكتابة بلغتين أو أكثر من اللغات التالية: الإنجليزية والفرنسية والإسبانية واليابانية والعربية. من لها اهتمام بتوفير مهاراتها، فيرجى التواصل معنا للحصول على المزيد من المعلومات، على العنوان التالي:

 membership@wilpf.org  

المشاركة في إنشاء البرنامج الدولي التالي​

ليكن صوتكِ مسموع! يتم تطوير برنامج WILPF الدولي التالي من خلال عملية إنشاء مشتركة - مما يعني أن مجتمع WILPF العالمي بأكمله مدعو للمشاركة في المناقشات الإقليمية والوطنية والعالمية حول الشكل الذي يجب أن يتّخذه مستقبلنا. انضموا إلينا وشاركن أفكاركن حول عمل WILPF ورؤيتها وقيمها.


يمكن الابتداء باستكشاف هذه الصفحة، أو استكشاف رزمة المشاركة، أو الانضمام إلى إحدى المناقشات القادمة. يمكن أيضاً التواصل مع ممثلتكن الإقليمية، للمزيد من المعلومات حول كيفية المشاركة على المستوى الوطني والإقليمي.


يشرف على هذه العملية مجلس WILPF الدولي.

مفتوح

تنظیم وحضور كونغرس ٢٠٢٢

سيعقد المؤتمر الدولي القادم لـ WILPF عبر الإنترنت في الفترة

من ١٦ إلى ٢٤ يوليو ٢٠٢٢ (ويرجع ذلك إلى حالة عدم اليقين التي أحدثتها جائحة COVID-19). سيفتح هذا المسار للتسجيل ولمقترحات الأنشطة في مارس ٢٠٢٢.


للمزيد من المعلومات الرجاء التواصل معنا على congress2022@wilpf.org


يشرف على هذه العملية مجلس WILPF الدولي لجنة المؤتمر التوجيهية.

سيُفتَح قريباً

اختیار عضوات المجلس الدولي ومنسقات اللجان

يتضمن كل مؤتمر دولي انتخاب عضوات للانضمام إلى مجلس WILPF الدولي. هذا المجلس مسؤول عن

القيادة العامة لـ WILPF؛ عن تحديد الأهداف الإستراتيجية والتكتيكية للمؤسسة ككل؛ و عن ضمان التزام WILPF بأهدافها وقيمها ومبادئها.


إن دور المجلس الدولي الحالي هو إنشاء لجنة الترشيح، بينما يتم تنسيق عملية الانتخابات من قبل لجنة الانتخابات التي سيتم تشكيلها في بداية كونغرس.


الدعوة الآن مفتوحة للعضوات الراغبات بالعمل في المجلس الدولي! لدى الأقسام الوطنية متسع من الوقت حتى ١٩ مارس لتقديم الترشيحات للمناصب المنتخبة: الرئيسة ونائبيتين للرئيسة وأمينة الخزانة. كما ويمكن للأقسام الآن الاجتماع في منطقتهم لتسمية ممثلة إقليمية واحدة وممثلة إقليمية بديلة. للمزيد من المعلومات ، يمكن الاتصال بالممثلة الإقليمية الخاص بكن أو أرسال بريداً إلكترونياً إلى  nomination@wilpf.org.

مفتوح

بناء وتعزيز طريقة عملنا مع بعضنا البعض

لاتخاذ الأفعال وإحداث تأثير في العالم ، نحتاج أيضاً إلى النظر في كيفية عملنا معاً. خلال المكالمات الإقليمية والعالمية المنتظمة خلال عامي ٢٠٢١ و ٢٠٢٢ ، تستكشف العضوات الفجوات التي يجب سدها ، والسياسات التي نحتاج إلى تغييرها ، والسياسات التي نحتاج إلى وضعها ، وأساليب العمل التي نحتاج إلى ضبطها ، والمزيد. نسعى إلى إيجاد الحلول معاً ، حتى نتمكن من تحقيق رؤيتنا الجماعية لمستقبل WILPF.


يشرف على هذه العملية المجلس الدولي واللجان الدائمة،  ولكن يتم تنفيذها بمشاركة جميع عضوات WILPF!

مفتوح

Share your thoughts and ideas

Question of the moment: What is feminist peace?